CD and DVD Duplication Services

Glossary F-H

ffmpegX A MAC video conversion program with a number of useful presets, such as .mov to VCD and .mov to DivX. Users can also create their own presets.
Field Every other row (or scan line) of a video frame, making up one-half of the picture.
File A sequence of logical blocks on a disk.
File System A logical data structure for files on a disc.
Filter Manipulating a video or audio file; for example, resizing, sharpening the picture, filtering out noise, etc.
Final Cut Pro Video editing software for the Mac capable of handling a large number of formats.
Firewire A high-speed (400 MB/s) peripheral connection which can easily accommodate high bistream rates.
Firmware Programming instructions that are permanently recorded in a device’s memory. When there are upgrades or changes to the programming instructions, they need to be made available to the device’s ROM chip, either by storing them elsewhere in the device’s memory or by removing the old chip and installing a new one.
Firstplay The first track that plays on a DVD player after the DVD is inserted, usually film studio logos and FBI anti-piracy warnings.
FourCC A four-character code identifying the format of a video stream. In order to play the video, the video player needs to find the FourCC code associated with it and then find the appropriate codec.
FPS Frames Per Second. NTSC video plays at 30 fps and PAL plays at 25 fps.
Frame A complete video picture made up of two interlaced fields, or a single image from a film.
Frame Rate The frames-per-second rate at which a video is played.
Frameserve Creating a direct path from one application to another in the video editing process, avoiding the necessity of an intermediate or “temporary” stage.
Full-Motion Video Video with a frame rate of 30 (NTSC) or 25 (PAL).
Full-Frame A movie that has had the mattes removed from it (which were put in place in a movie theater’s projection booth in order to change the aspect ratio of the frame). In full-frame mode, there is more picture visible on the screen than there originally was in the theater.
Gap (or Pause) Space which divides tracks on a disc. The Red Book (and other “color” books) specify when gaps are needed and how long they must be. For instance, there must be a gap of 2–3 seconds before the first track on a disc.
GIGO Garbage In, Garbage Out. When duplicating or changing the format of a video, the quality of the final product can only be as good as that of the original. Depending on the formats involved, it may even be worse!
Glitch A defect on a disc that produces a noticeable (and undesirable) effect during playback, like skipping, freezing or pixelation.
GOP Group of Pictures. MPEG video streams are made of sequences of 8–24 frames; each of these sequences is a GOP. A GOP has a single still image (the I frame). Other frames which complete the appearance of movement are created in relation to the I frame: a P frame refers only to the frame before it, while a B frame refers to the frames before and after it. By minimizing the amount of data required to create these frames, the MPEG file can be compressed substantially. An open GOP can also refer to an I frame from a prior GOP, while a closed GOP has no references to any prior GOPs.
GUI Graphical User Interface. A computer interface that uses icons and simple input devices (like a mouse) to allow a user to give it instructions, instead of relying on typed command strings, such as those in DOS.
Half D1 An encoding method for MPEG-2 video in which only half of the horizontal resolution is sampled.
HD-DVD High-Definition DVD. Similar to current DVD technology, but the discs can hold much more data (15 GB on a single-layer disc); it is one of two technologies in the new DVD “format war” (Blu-Ray being the other).
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface. A universal digital audio/video interface, allowing any source to be played on any machine without the need for compression.
HDTV High Definition Television. A TV which, although designed for digital video, can play digital and analog transmissions. They have a native 16:9 ratio, providing enough room for widescreen video without resorting to “black bars” or pan-and-scan. The picture is far superior to analog, with five times the resolution, and Dolby Digital Surround Sound is built in.
HFS Macintosh’s file system for organizing data on hard drives and removable storage media.
Hi8 A camcorder format which can be stored on Hi8 or 8mm tape (both analog). Note: although most Hi8 tapes will work in Digital8 camcorders, they can only hold about one hour of digital video.
High Sierra Format An abandoned logical format for CD-ROMs, named for the group that proposed it.
Horizontal Resolution The horizontal lines on a TV screen; the higher the number of lines, the better the resolution is.
HQ-VCD High-Quality Video Compact Disc. A video format developed by a group of companies (Philips, Sony, Matsushita and JVC), which has now become SVCD (Super Video CD).
HTPC Home Theater Personal Computer. A computer intended as the hub of a household’s media needs: movies, television, music, games and the Internet.
Hue Color.
Huffyuv A lossless Windows video codec that can achieve speeds above 38 MB/second and is intended to replace uncompressed YUV as a video format.
  1. A recordable disc that has not been filled or closed yet, allowing for more recording in the future.
  2. A single disc that holds software for both Windows and Macintosh computers.

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