CD and DVD Duplication Services

Glossary I-K

I Frame Image frame. A video frame encoded as a single image; other frames can be derived from this frame, such as B Frames and P Frames. See B Frame, P Frame.
i.Link Sony’s term for Firewire.
ID Identification Data. On discs, it is a 32-bit field that identifies sector numbers.
ID3 A tag stored in an MP3 file that contains information about the file, such as artist, title, song name or track duration.
iDVD DVD authoring software for the Mac.
IEC ID Error Correction. Extra bytes added to sector headers which help correct disc errors.
IEEE1394 Firewire.
IMG (File extension: .img) A file used to make a sector-by-sector copy of a disk.
Indexes Additional starting points inserted into a CD audio track.
Interactive Games Brief games included on some DVDs, revolving around the feature presentation.
Interactive Menus A series of screens which a viewer navigates through in order to select different features and options on a DVD.
Interframe Compression A type of compression that compares data in one frame to data in another.
Interlacing Combining two sets of field lines (“odd-numbered” rows and “even-numbered” rows) to create a single video image.
Intraframe Compression A type of compression that compares data in one frame to itself; this is used for key frames, which must reconstruct an image without referring to any other frames.
Intro A short video clip at the start of a DVD.
ISO International Standard for Organization. A committee that develops standards which products and services need to meet. Each set of standards is numbered; for example, ISO 9660 deals with the volume and file structures of CD-ROMs, and ISO 9642 deals with time and control codes for 24, 25 and 30 fps motion-picture systems.
ISO 9660 A CD-ROM with a file system that meets ISO 9660 standards can be read in any PC, Mac or similar computer platform. There are three “levels” in the ISO 9660 standard:

  • Level 1: Files must be a single continuous stream of bytes (they cannot be fragmented), and must conform to the “8-dot-3” file naming structure (the name of a file cannot be more than eight characters long, and the file extension cannot be more than three characters long—budget06.xls, nwslettr.doc, etc.).
  • Level 2: The same as Level 1, only there are no restrictions on file names.
  • Level 3: No restrictions on file fragmentation or file names.
ISO 9660 Image An image file (see IMG) which is ISO 9660-compliant.
Isolated Music Score A separate audio track in a movie with nothing but the music. This separation is done to prevent the music from overwhelming the dialogue or sound effects.
ISRC International Standard Recording Code. A 12-character code which is sometimes added to an audio track on a CD, identifying the track’s country of origin, owner/registrant, year of recording and serial number.
IVTC Inverse Telecine. A codec that changes 29.97 fps NTSC video back into 24 fps film.
Jewel Case A transparent plastic CD case.
Joliet An ISO 9660 extension that allows Windows files to exceed the “8-dot-3” naming restriction. With this improvement, the file names can be up to 64 characters long and include spaces.
JPEG Joint Photographic Expert Group (file extension: .jpg or .jpeg). A compressed image format which works very well on color pictures.
Jump An anomaly that causes a CD or DVD to skip forward during playback.
Karaoke A DVD format that combines audio tracks with text. In the proper player, the text (usually the lyrics to the audio tracks) is displayed on a screen and highlighted in real time, allowing people to sing along.
Key Frame A video frame with all the data for a single image. They are always the first frame of a video file and can be inserted at any point to avoid image degradation.
Kodak Picture CD A CD with pictures stored on it in JPEG format, along with proprietary Kodak software for viewing, enhancing and printing.
KVCD K Video Compression Dynamics. A modified MPEG compression method allowing more than two hours of video to be stored on a CD-R or CD-RW. Since KVCD is not an “official” DVD format, there are no guarantees that a DVD player will be able to play one of these discs.

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